12月7日 ジャズの歴史(8) ヒップホップ (hip hop)

ヒップホップは、1970年代、ニューヨークのスラム街(サウスブロンクス South Bronx)で、アフロアメリカン(African-American)、ヒスパニック系(Hispanic)、カリビアンアメリカンが集まるヒップホップパーティーで生まれました。

ヒップホップとは、「ラップ(RAP)」「ブレイクダンス(BREAKIN)」「ディジェー(DJ)」「グラフィティ(GRAFFITI 落書き)」の四つの要素で構成された、創造性を象徴した文化(サブカルチャー)を指しています。

1973年、セグウィック通り(Sedgwick Avenue)のアパートで開かれたパーティーで、ヒップホップ創始者の一人である DJクール・ハーク(Kool Herc)は、ブレイクビーツ(Breakbeat)と呼ばれるヒップホップ・スタイルを作り出しました。



1990年代頃から東海岸を代表するバッド・ボーイ・エンターテインメント(Bad Boy Entertainment)と、西海岸を代表するデス・ロウ・レーベル(Death Row Records)との対立があり、両海岸のアーティストたちはお互いを牽制、威嚇、卑下し合いました。


この東西抗争が原因で、2パック(2Pac)とノートリアス・B.I.G.(Notorious B.I.G.)という両海岸を代表する有能なラッパーを、ともに銃撃事件で失うことになってしまいました。
この事態を重く見たヒップホップ業界で最も成功したといわれるプロデューサーのドクター・ドレー(Dr. Dre)が沈静化に努力し、現在は個人間の中傷を除いて、沈静化しています。

その後、スヌープ・ドッグ(Snoop Dogg)やエミネム(Eminem)などラッパーのメジャーヒットや、映画「フラッシュダンス」のワンシーンを火付け役に、ブレイクダンスをテーマにした映画「ビートストリート」(BEAT STREET)などの公開で、世界的にヒップホップミュージックやブレイクダンスが流行し、ヒップホップは世界各国に広まるようになりました。

                            Lose Yourself(Eminem)


          The Outsider(G-Eazy)



It's the Joint (The Funky Four + 1)1980
Rappers Delight(Sugarhill Gang)1980
The Breaks (Kurtis Blow)1980
The New Rap Language (Treacherous Three)1980
The Message (Grandmaster Flash & The Furious Five)1982
Feel the Heartbeat (Treacherous Three)1983
Five Minutes of Funk (Whodini)1984
Freaks Come Out At Night (Whodini)1984
It's Like That (Run-D.M.C.)1984
Rock Box (Run-D.M.C.)1984
Sucker M.C.s (Run-D.M.C.)1984
White Lines (Don't Do It) (Grandmaster Flash & the Furious Five)1984
I Can't Live Without My Radio (LL Cool J)1985
If I Ruled the World (Kurtis Blow)1985
Jam-Master Jammin' (Run-D.M.C.)1985
King of Rock (Run-D.M.C.)1985
P.S.K. (What Does It Mean) (Schoolly D)1985
Rock the Bells (LL Cool J)1985
Roxanne, Roxanne (U.T.F.O.)1985
The Show (Doug E. Fresh w/Slick Rick)1985

(You Gotta) Fight For Your Right (To Party) (Beastie Boys)1986
Paul Revere (The Beastie Boys)1986
Planet Rock (Afrika Bambaataa)1986
Push It (Salt-n-Pepa)1986
Walk This Way (Run-D.M.C. & Aerosmith)1986
6 In the Mornin' (Ice T)1987
Bring The Noise (Public Enemy)1987
Eric B. is President (Eric B. & Rakim)1987
I Ain't No Joke (Eric B. & Rakim)1987
I Need Love (LL Cool J)1987
I'm Bad (LL Cool J)1987
Paid in Full (Eric B. & Rakim)1987
The Bridge Is Over (Boogie Down Productions)1987
Ain't No Half-Steppin' (Big Daddy Kane)1988
Black Steel In the Hour of Chaos (Public Enemy)1988
Boyz-N-The-Hood (Eazy E)1988
Children's Story (Slick Rick)1988
Colors (Ice T)1988
Follow the Leader (Eric B. & Rakim)1988
I Got It Like That (The Jungle Brothers)1988
I'm Still #1 (Boogie Down Productions)1988
It Takes Two (Rob Base & DJ EZ Rock)1988
Let's Get It Started (MC Hammer)1988
Life Is...Too $hort (Too $hort)1988
Lyte As A Rock (MC Lyte)1988
Mona Lisa (Slick Rick)1988
My Philosophy (Boogie Down Productions)1988
Parents Just Don't Understand (DJ Jazzy Jeff & The Fresh Prince)1988
Rebel Without A Pause (Public Enemy)1988
Set It Off (Big Daddy Kane)1988
The Vapors (Biz Markie)1988
Top Billin' (Audio Two)1988
We Want Eazy (Eazy E)1988
You Gots to Chill (EPMD)1988
Bust A Move (Young MC)1989
Cha Cha Cha (MC Lyte)1989
I Got It Made (Special Ed)1989
It's Funky Enough (The D.O.C.)1989
Just A Friend (Biz Markie)1989
Ladies First (Queen Latifah w/ Monie Love)1989
Me Myself and I (De La Soul)1989
Road to Riches (Kool G. Rap & DJ Polo)1989
Smooth Operator (Big Daddy Kane)1989
We Got Our Own Thang (Heavy D. & the Boyz)1989
Wild Thing (Tone-Loc)1989
Words I Manifest (GangStarr)1989
911 Is A Joke (Public Enemy)1990
Around the Way Girl (LL Cool J)1990
Bonita Applebum (A Tribe Called Quest)1990
Can I Kick It? (A Tribe Called Quest)1990
Fight The Power (Public Enemy)1990
Let's Talk About Sex (Salt N Pepa)1990
Mama Said Knock You Out (LL Cool J)1990
Monie In the Middle (Monie Love)1990
Rock Dis Funky Joint (Poor Righteous Teachers)1990
Same Song (Digital Underground)1990
Slow Down (Brand Nubian)1990
Streets of N.Y. (Kool G. Rap & DJ Polo)1990
The Humpty Dance(Digital Underground)1990
Welcome to the Terrordome (Public Enemy)1990

Check the Rhime (A Tribe Called Quest)1991
Hip Hop Junkie (Nice & Smooth)1991
How I Could Just Kill A Man (Cypress Hill)1991
Mind Playing Tricks on Me (Geto Boys)1991
O.P.P. (Naughty By Nature)1991
Pop Goes the Weasel (3rd Bass)1991
Scenario (A Tribe Called Quest)1991
Steady Mobbin' (Ice Cube)1991
Summertime (DJ Jazzy Jeff & The Fresh Prince)1991
The Choice Is Yours (Black Sheep)1991
Treat 'Em Right (Chubb Rock)1991
You Can't Play With My Yo-Yo (Yo-Yo)1991
Crossover (EPMD)1992
Deep Cover (Dr. Dre w/ Snoop Doggy Dogg)1992
Dre Day (Dr. Dre w/Snoop Doggy Dogg)1992
It Was A Good Day (Ice Cube)1992
Nuthin But A "G" Thang (Dr. Dre)1992
Passin' Me By (The Pharcyde)1992
Straighten It Out (Pete Rock & CL Smooth)1992
Tennessee (Arrested Development)1992
They Reminisce Over You (T.R.O.Y.) (C.L. Smooth & Pete Rock)1992
Award Tour (A Tribe Called Quest)1993
C.R.E.A.M. (Wu Tang Clan)1993
Chief Rocka (Lords of the Underground)1993
Electric Relaxation (A Tribe Called Quest)1993
Hip Hop Hooray (Naughty By Nature)1993
Insane In the Brain (Cypress Hill)1993
Keep Ya Head Up (2 Pac)1993
La Di Da Di (Slick Rick & Doug E. Fresh)1993
Rebirth of Slick (Cool Like Dat) (Digable Planets)1993
Ruffneck (MC Lyte)1993
Slam (Onyx)1993
U.N.I.T.Y. (Queen Latifah)1993
Whatta Man (Salt N Pepa w/En Vogue)1993
Big Poppa (Notorious B.I.G.)1994
Bring the Pain (Method Man)1994
Come Clean (Jeru Da Damaja)1994
Flava In Ya Ear (remix) (Craig Mack)1994
Funkdafied (Da Brat)1994
I Seen A Man Die (Scarface)1994
I Used To Love H.E.R. (Common)1994
I'll Be There for You/You're All I Need (Method Man w/ Mary J. Blige)1994
It Ain't Hard to Tell (Nas)1994
Juicy (Notorious B.I.G.)1994
Mass Appeal (GangStarr)1994
Murder Was the Case (Snoop Doggy Dogg)1994
Regulate (Warren G. w/ Nate Dogg)1994
Rockin' It (The Fearless Four)1994
The World Is Yours (Nas)1994
Warning (The Notorious B.I.G.)1994
Cell Therapy (Goodie MOB)1995
Dear Mama (2pac)1995
Dirty South (Goodie MOB)1995
Gangsta's Paradise(Coolio)1995
I Got 5 On It (The Luniz)1995
Ice Cream (Raekwon)1995
Proceed (The Roots)1995
Shed So Many Tears (2 Pac)1995
Shook Ones, Pt II (Mobb Deep)1995
Space Age Pimpin' (Eightball & MJG)1995
Street Struck (Big L)1995
Sugar Hill (AZ)1995
Tha Crossroads (Bone Thugs N Harmony)1995

Crush On You (Lil Kim)1996
Dead Presidents, Pt II (Jay-Z)1996
Do You Wanna Ride (Do or Die)1996
Elevators (Me & You) (Outkast)1996
Fu-Gee-La (The Fugees)1996
Hail Mary (2Pac)1996
I Ain't Mad At Cha (2Pac)1996
No Time (Lil Kim w/Puff Daddy)1996
One Day (UGK)1996
Renee (The Lost Boys)1996
Woo-Hah (Got U All In Check) (Busta Rhymes)1996
All About the Benjamins (Puff Daddy w/Lil Kim, The LOX & The Notorious B.I.G.)1997
Hypnotize (The Notorious B.I.G.)1997
Put Your Hands Where My Eyes Can See (Busta Rhymes)1997
The Rain (Supa Dupa Fly) (Missy Elliott)1997
Triumph (Wu-Tang Clan)1997
Back That Azz Up (Juvenile)1998
Brown-Skinned Lady (Mos Def & Talib Kweli)1998
Doo Wop (That Thing) (Lauryn Hill)1998
Get At Me Dog (DMX)1998
Hard Knock Life (Jay Z)1998
Rosa Parks (Outkast)1998
Still Not A Player (Big Pun w/Joe)1998
The Definition (Mos Def & Talib Kweli (Black Star))1998
Big Pimpin' (Jay Z)1999
Ms. Fat Booty (Mos Def)1999
My Name Is... (Eminem)1999
You Got Me (The Roots)1999
B.O.B. (Outkast)2000
Hip-Hop (Dead Prez)2000
Ms. Jackson (Outkast)2000
Stan (Eminem)2000
The Light (Common w/Erykah Badu)2000
The Next Episode (Dr. Dre w/Snoop Dogg)2000

Get Ur Freak On (Missy Elliott)2001
One Mic (Nas)2001
Get By (Talib Kweli)2002
Lose Yourself (Eminem)2002
Buddy (De La Soul w/The Jungle Bros, Monie Love & Q-Tip)2003
In Da Club (50 Cent)2003
Rubberband Man (T.I.)2003
The Way You Move (Outkast)2003
Whatever You Say (Little Brother)2003
Drop It Like Its Hot (Snoop Dogg)2004
Jesus Walks (Kanye West)2004
Lean Back (Fat Joe)2004
Through the Wire (Kanye West)2004
Go Crazy (Young Jeezy)2005
Ridin' (Chamillionaire w/ Krayzie Bone)2005
What You Know (T.I.)2006
Roc Boys (And the Winner Is...) (Jay-Z)2007
Superstar (Lupe Fiasco)2007
A Milli (Lil Wayne)2008
The Symphony (The Juice Crew)2009
Thuggish Ruggish Bone (Bone Thugs N Harmony)2010
Express Yourself (N.W.A)2016
Fuck Tha Police (N.W.A)2016